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SURGEON, U. S. NAVT. Where Can I Purchase Levitra The paper of Dr. Stephenson contains internal evidence of laborious research, and the authenticity of the facts given can not in the main be gainsaid. But, while conceding all this, I should like to call attention to one statement, not for the purpose of contradicting it, but to find out, by discus- sion, just how much historical testimony there may be in its support, or vice versa. I refer to the assertion that in the de- struction of the Alexandrian library by the Mohammedans the medical and other scientific writings were preserved. Gibbon states that when the victorious General Amru, at the intercession of a Greek philosopher, appealed to the caliph for permission to spare this great treasure from the general wreck, he received this familiar response : " If the books are confirmatory of the Koran, they are useless and need not be preserved ; if contradictory, they are pernicious and ought to be destroyed." Thus Amru, continues the historian, gave orders to have these precious manuscripts distributed among the public baths, and he adds, with some expression of doubt, that six months are said to have been consumed in their incineration. Draper, in his " Intellectual Develop- ment of Europe," gives substantially the same account of this transaction. No one can doubt the accuracy of the sage and historian who prepared himself for his great work by twenty years of study and seclusion. Is it credible that such Where Can I Purchase Levitra a writer as Gibbon would have omitted to mention so important and far-reaching a fact ? Any one who has read carefully his philosophical treatise on history, and thus made himself familiar with the mental bias of the author, can not doubt, I think, that he would not have passed by such an opportunity for signalizing the liberality, tolera- tion, and love of learning of the Moslems, and of contrast- ing it with the narrow and persecuting spirit of the early * For Where Can I Purchase Levitra those, in nostra dodo corpore, inclined to think such investi- gations of no value, or of little worth, we quote Epictetus : " apx^ t^s TTotSeutrews ^ ruy ov6fxaro>v eir'iKf^is — Xominum consideratio instruc- tionis principium est." \ Read before the U. S. Naval Medical Society. July 24, 1886. LORINO: DIOPTRIC, DIOPTRE, DIOPTRIE, OR DIOPTRY? 95 Christians. While, therefore, the writer has reason, from the authority which he quotes, for making this statement, it appears to me that the proof is insufficient for giving to the 3Iohammedans the credit of Where Can I Purchase Levitra so liberal and gentle an act, which, if true, deserves to be reverenced by all students im- measurably beyond that which the verdict of mankind has hitherto accorded to it. It is well known that the old Alex- andrian libiary, which was established by Ptolemy Soter, about 300 B. c, was destroyed, either accidentally or other- wise, in Where Can I Purchase Levitra the capture of Where Can I Purchase Levitra the city by Julius Cpesar, and that, in order s.omewhat to appease the grief of Cleopatra, Marc Antony made her a present of the rival library of Pergamus, containing some two hundred thousand vohimes. These were added to the rolls preserved in the temple of Serapis, and, by subsequent addition, this library grew into Where Can I Purchase Levitra grand proportions. In the fourth century a great deal of this valuable collectioi] of manuscripts was destroyed by the in- tolerant Bishop Theophilus, who had obtained permission from Theodosius the Great. So, it would seem, there could not have been verv much for the Saracens to spare or con- demn in the seventh century. At a period a little later than that of the foundation of the Alexandrian library by Ptolemy Soter, his son, Ptolemy Philadelphus, Where Can I Purchase Levitra founded the Alexandrian Museum. Having arranged its studies in the four faculties of literature, mathematics, astronomy, and meilicine, he appointed the physicians Herophilus, Cleombrotus, and Erasistratus in- structors in the latter. Both Ptolemy and Herophilus were born in Cos, where Hippocrates, a century before, had re- deemed Greek medicine from the miracle cure of the tem- ples of j-Esculapius, and placed it upon the sure foundation of reason and observation. It is reasonable to infer that both these distinguished men imbibed some of the investi- gating spirit of the " father of medicine." For Ptolemy Philadelphus insisted that Herophilus and his collaborators should base their studies and instruction upon a knowledge of anatomy derived from dissection of the human body, and even required vivisection of the lower animals and con- demned criminals in the pursuit of physiological truths, for, said he, is it not right that those who have already for- feited their lives by crimes against the State should be made to contribute to the welfare of humanity ? Thus it was here, in the Alexandrian Museum, in the third century, B. c, that we have the earliest authentic record of dissection of the human body. Theophilus was aware of the existence of the lacteals, and of their anatomical relation to the me- senteric glands. Erasistratus, his colleague, described the structure of the heart, its connections witli the arteries and veins, and taught that there were two kinds of nerves — those of sensation and those of motion. It is pertinent Where Can I Purchase Levitra here to acknowledge the indebtedness of medicine to the Nestorian Christians, who, having been banished from Constantinople in the fourth century, carried their enthusiastic love of literature into Asia, established the medical schools of Edessa Where Can I Purchase Levitra and Djondesabour, and trans- lated many Greek works into Arabic and Hebrew. The Xestorians and Jews, being alike persecuted by the orthodox Christians, were treated with more toleration by the Mo- hammedans, who, periiaps, wore influeui'cd by the similarity of monotheistic belief. Thus it came about that the Nes- torians and Hebrews, who were the conservators of ancient medical learning, the profession in Christian Europe having been given up to relic and shrine cure, imparted their knowledge Where Can I Purchase Levitra to the Arabians, after the latter's occupation of Africa and Spain, during the seventh century. The Moors and Jews established flourishing medical schools at Toledo, Cordova, Granada, and Seville, and were teaching a rational system of medicine from the seventh to the fifteenth cen- tury, at a time when benighted Christian Europe was, through the invocation of saints, trying to cure disease by the propitiation of an offended Deity. DIOPTRIC, DIOPTRE, DIOPTRIE, OR DIOPTRY^ By EDWARD G. L(.)RING, M.D.