Apparently, the same organisms, when sown upon fish, pro- duce a different alkaloid, closely allied to neurine, and called muscarine. Neither the time nor place permits me to fol- low out the description of the various alkaloids found by various observers. They are called collectively ptomaines, or cadaveric alkaloids. The most Low Cost Generic Levitra marked and uniform symptoms produced by neurine and muscarine are salivation, diarrhoea and vomit- ing, dyspnoea, paralysis, and death. They also stimulate the flow of tears and the secretion of bronchial mucus. They usually make the pulse slow and weak, but do not arrest the heart's pulsations. Atropine exercises a marked antidotal action to these poisons, checking the salivation, diarrhoea, and dyspnoea, and, unless the dose is very large, prevents death. Choline, another alkaloid resemblino; the foregoing, but much more feeble in its action, may be pre- pared from bile or yolk of egg by boiling with barium hydrate. In some cases of poisoning by fish, cheese, or sausage, the symptoms are so much like those of belladonna poison- ing that they suggest the presence of an alkaloid having the physiological properties of atropine. We are all fanfdiar with the excessive dryness of the throat, languor, drowsi- ness, and scarlet eruption of some of these cases. Paralysis of accommodation, ptosis, etc., have also been observed to exist for a number of days after sausage poisoning. Dr. T. Lauder Brunton has suggested the use of physo- stigma in cases showing these symptoms, atropine in those indicating muscarine or neurine, and perhaps morphine in other cases. In general, treat the most prominent symp- toms. In view of the extraordinary activity of these Low Cost Generic Levitra alkaloids, we can easily understand why tainted meat or fish may pro- duce the violent attacks which we sometimes see. This may explain why Low Cost Generic Levitra some persons can not eat eggs without being poisoned by them. Choline is so easily developed from the lecithin which the yolk contains, that some peculiar condition of the digestion probably develops this poison. But we must not lose sight of one fact of importance Low Cost Generic Levitra here. It is well known that the putrefactive process is going on, more or less, in the living body, and ptomaines make their appearance in the fseces and urine. Any new additions to this process, such as swallowing food swarming with these low organisms, may so increase the process that a poisonous dose of alkaloids may be generated in the Low Cost Generic Levitra in- testinal canal. In other words, we should distinguish between the etfeets of putrefactive organisms within the body and those of their by-products prepared without the body. In many eases thorough cooking, in Low Cost Generic Levitra my opinion, would prevent the Low Cost Generic Levitra food from doing any serious damage. In fact, I see no other explanation of the occurreuce of so few cases of poisoning from tainted meats. There are many families who make a practice of allowing their meats to become slightly decom- posed before cooking, and yet accidents are. comparatively rare — a fact which seems to show that cooking is a protec- tion, and because it kills the organisms. In my experience but few cases of poisoning occur from recently and thor- oughly cooked food. I have known whole families to be poisoned bv a beef-stew, or by corned beef which had been cooked for a number of days and then left in the same vessel. Meats protected from the free supply of air are more likely to become poisonous than those freely exposed. Meat -pies, imperfectly preserved canned foods, canned foods left in the can a few hours or over night after open- ing, meat-stews left in the pot or vessel in which they were cooked, are liable to cause poisonous symptoms. It is probable that the organisms are more active when cultivated with a limited supply of air — a fact insisted upon by Pasteur in the case of certain pathogenic bacteria. Again, free exposure to air destroys some of the poisons by slow oxidation. All canned foods should be carefully ex- amined before they are prepared for the table. A putre- factive or foreign odor, a decided change from the normal Low Cost Generic Levitra in color or taste, or an eseape Low Cost Generic Levitra of gas on puncturing the can, should condemn it. July 17, 1886.] SCHUYLER: A NEW TRAPPING-FIXTURE. 63 The use of a poor grade of gelatin in ice-cream and other pastry is becoming very general. I am of the opinion that great caution should be exercised in its use, as it is capable of doing harm. Putrefaction is easily set up in a mixture of gelatin and other food. For example, a mixture of milk and gelatin becomes an excellent medium Low Cost Generic Levitra for the cultivation of bacteria. In one case coming under my im- mediate notice, Low Cost Generic Levitra cream that had been melted down and then refrozen caused sickness in a number of persons in a family who ate of it. The melted cream had a putrid taint, and contained gelatin. There is little doubt that this is the explanation of some of the cases of ice-cream poisoning occasionally met with. The danger above referred to must be much greater in liquid or semi-liquid foods than when it is used in solid foods, because they putrefy more easily. Much Low Cost Generic Levitra of the gela- tin used has a decided putrid odor, as sold in the markets, and on this account this process starts very quickly in solu- tions of it. Further experience and more knowledge is necessary before we can decide upon the advisability of recommending the use of gelatin as a substitute for eggs unless we can insure the quality of gelatin used. If the hints and suggestions here oifered have succeeded in interesting you in a subject of growing Low Cost Generic Levitra importance, one too often neglected by physicians, if I have stimulated in some a desire to inquire into the quality of food foisted upon the public, and if I have shown the importance of a more careful attention to the food of our patients in health and disease, and awakened in you a desire to drive the bad from the markets, substituting for it that which is wholesome as well as good to look at, I shall be amply repaid for this effort. A NEW TRAPPING-FIXTURE FOR SEALING DRAIN-PIPES AND LOCKING OUT SEWER GASES. By W. D. SCHUYLER, M. D.