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it is forbidden to sell them. The use of antiseptics and disguises to make such beer salable is a punishable offense. To control this matter, in Bavaria at least, governmental inspectors are maintained, and the breweries as well as the beer of the Levitra Prices In Pakistan markets are kept under supervision. Such in- spection is needed in this country at the present time. The Levitra Prices In Pakistan presence of the butyric and putrefactive ferments in a brew- Levitra Prices In Pakistan ery are manifested by a peculiar odor to be detected by an expert on Levitra Prices In Pakistan going into the cellars. In one brewery visited by me last summer I detected this odor on entering the cellar. In this same brewery very large quantities of bicarbonate of sodium were being added to the beer — at least two ounces to the keg, containing one hundred glasses, or about 9'5 grains to the glass. In other breweries the quantity used varied from half an ounce to an ounce and three fourths to the keg by actual weight. It will be seen that a man who habitually drinks twenty glasses of beer daily — not an unusual allowance for some drinkers — would take one hundred and ninety grains of the bicarbonate. It must be remembered, however, that a Levitra Prices In Pakistan large portion of the bicarbonate is decomposed before being taken into the stomach ; but in eight samples, from as many different breweries, an excess of the bicarbonate was found in each Levitra Prices In Pakistan sample. It was observed that men drinking freely of lager beer thus treated habitually passed alkaline, turbid urine. In regard to the use of the alkaline salts Brunton says : " The excessive use of alkalies or their carbonates is injurious, and their employment to reduce obesity may, un- less carefully watched, be followed by serious consequences." That the excessive use of alkaline carbonates may derange the digestive organs is well known. The effect of these large doses of salts of sodium, when continued for a long time, Levitra Prices In Pakistan may possibly be injurious to the kidneys, if for no other reason, because of the necessity of their eliminating large quantities of the alkaline car- bonate. The stomach refuses food, and the health is con- sequently impaired by this excessive amoimt of alkalies. Add to this the disturbing action of imperfectly finished and clarified beers, and a small amount of injurious metals, and we may ask ourselves why modern beer ever agrees with any one. I must not leave this subject without remarking that •some brewers in Brooklyn and New York prepare a bever- age that is comparatively free from these objections. Bot- tled beers are, as a rule, better than those sold over the counter, and are not treated with sodium bicarbonate. The facts here stated show the necessity of a frequent inspec- tion and constant sanitary control of modern breweries as the only way of regulating the quality of lager beer. Among injurious adulterations of food we may mention the addition of red lead, chromate of lead, arsenite of cop- per, Martin's yellow, vermilion, arsenical fuchsin, and "fusel- oil " to confectionery, nearly all of which practices have been detected in this city. The coloring of vermicelli and Levitra Prices In Pakistan pastry with chromate of lead is equally reprehensible. At least one case of lead poisoning in New York was traced to this cause. The practice of coloring pickles, peas, etc., with copper received a severe blow last June by the death of a girl of seven years, from a pickle colored with sulphate Levitra Prices In Pakistan of copper, two days after the Department of Health of this city had prohibited the sale of " greened " pickles. The sale of head-cheese and Bologna salisage made from stale, unsalable meat, treated with borax and saltpetre and 60 BARTLET: MODERN ADULTERATIONS IN FOODS. [N. Y. Med. Joob., tlien colored with Venetian red or fuclisin (aniline red), furnishes another example of the fertility of " Yankee in- genuity " in furnishing food for the human race. Scarcely less interesting is the practice, recently discov- ered, of polishing and coloring inferior grades of cofEee to make them resemble the more desirable brands. The col- ors used for this purpose are nearly all the ordinary cheap pigments, such as ochre, umber, Venetian red, animal black, Prussian blue, indigo, French chalk (soap-stone), chrome yellow, one sample of which was loaded with arsenic, arsen- ite of copper, etc. These and similar metallic and poison- ous adulterations need no discussion or comment to fix their place in relation to the question of health. The only question worthy of even a passing considera- tion is that Levitra Prices In Pakistan of the quantity of these various ingredients used. It sometimes happens that physicians are unguarded enough to admit that, because the quantity used is less than a medicinal dose of copper, lead, tin, zinc, arsenic, or chromium, as the case may be, it can not be harmful. In the case of lead or mercury, which are cumulative poisons, it would be admitted that more than mere traces would be dangerous in the course of time. In the case of arsenic, renal inflammation has been induced by living in a room whose walls were covered with a paper colored with arsenite of copper. In other instances obstinate conjunc- tivitis, bronchitis, and even diarrhoea leading to fatal results have occurred from arsenic obtained from the same source. In the case of copper, tin, zinc, and other metals, less is known definitely. It is certain, however, that large doses of these metals are irritants to delicate tissues, and no one of us would like to prescribe one-grain doses of any one of them to be taken for a life-time. Yet in the greening of preserved vegetables larger doses of copper than this are provided. In some canned tomatoes examined in the labo- ratory of the Brooklyn Health Department last year, over three grains of tin were found in each two-pound can. The fact that these metals are abnormal to our food, that they have irritant properties upon Levitra Prices In Pakistan the kidneys, and that there are many cases of latent nephritis in every community which may be injured by even slight irritants, Levitra Prices In Pakistan are sufficient causes to prohibit e\'en very small doses of these metals in articles of every-day consumption. As before stated, any substance which has a distinct physiological action which makes it of value as a medicine must necessarily make it dangerous as a Levitra Prices In Pakistan food to be used in- definitely, for long-continued stimulation of any Levitra Prices In Pakistan organ or set of organs will sooner or later derange the functions of the organ or organs. In this connection we may refer to another subject which has not received the attention from the profession