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t Loc. What shall we say of turpentine, alum, Levitra Prices Costco copper sulphate, lead acetate, and tannic acid, occasionally met with, or the large number of coloring agents in every-day use in color- ing wines, and the long list of other agents used ? Sick- ness, in the form of vomiting, has frequently come to my notice from partaking of artificially flavored drinks, un- doubtedly due to the ethers used. How much of the injury to dram drinkers is done by these added substances it is impossible to sav. We are all familiar with the Levitra Prices Costco fact that those who indulge in cheaper and more adulterated drinks of this class suffer more than those who drink only such as are known to be pure. Lager beer has become almost a Levitra Prices Costco national beverage. Some of Levitra Prices Costco the breweries are sending out from 800 to 1,000 kegs of beer a day, and this is no exceptional city in this respect. There are manufactured and sold in this city each year, Levitra Prices Costco exclusive of what is brought in from other places, about 1,350,000 barrels, or over 41,800,000 gallons, of ale and beer. This quantity is distributed among 700,000 peo- ple, at the rate of 60 gallons ^;er capita per annum. The importarce of keeping this beverage pure and wholesome, and free from injurious adulterations of any kind, is self- evident. Recent investigations, conducted by myself to determine the character of the beer manufactured and sold in this city, have shown that, although many of the extravagant state- ments of sensationalists are not borne out, there have grown up in recent years certain practices which must be regarded as harmful to the health of beer drinkers. A perfectly pure solution of extract of malt, Levitra Prices Costco dextrin, maltose, and extractive matters, containing a small per- centage of alcohol, can not be regarded as injurious to health when taken in reasonable quantities. Levitra Prices Costco AVhen, how- ever, this liquid is allowed to contain a constant though small quantity of copper, zinc, and in some cases lead, as proved by my investigations, and when there are numbers of men and women who drink from twenty to one hundred glasses a day, even Levitra Prices Costco these small quantities of these metals be- come matters of great importance, especially to those persons whose kidneys are defective from disease or overloaded with effete materials. Suppose a pair of kidneys and a liver have to pass through them but two or three grains of copper and zinc daily, except on special occasions. We must remember that these metals, while not very poisonous, are abnormal substances to the habit of the kidneys, and somewhat irritating ; that this action, though slight for a single day, is kept up for a Levitra Prices Costco number of days — yea, for the years of a life-time. How much of the gastric catarrh and renal and hepatic troubles seen in beer drinkers may be due to these contaminations ? The probabilities are Levitra Prices Costco too strong to allow us to pass them by with unconcern. This is not all. Competition has compelled brewers to turn out very large quantities of beer in order to make it pay to do business on the small margins allowed. This, again, neces- sitates either an enormous storing capacity and great outlay of capital, or some means of shortening the time of manu- facture. Levitra Prices Costco An examination into this subject revealed the fact that in one of the very popular breweries, sending out about six July 17, 1886.] BARTLEY: MODERN ADULTERATIONS IN FOODS. 59 hundred kegs daily in hot weather, the total storing capa- city would only allow of a storage of twenty-nine days when every cask was kept full, which is seldom the case. The object of keeping the lager in the resting-vats for three to four or even six months, as was formerly done, and is still done in Bavaria, is to allow the beer to clear itself of yeast, etc., by settling. In order to get the beer out in as short a time as two or even three weeks after the completion of the fermentation, it is necessary to use clearing agents. The substances used very generally for this purpose are isinglass, Iceland moss, gelatin, tannin, cream of tartar, etc. Gelatin or isinglass Levitra Prices Costco seems to be the most commonly used. A solution is made in water Levitra Prices Costco with the assistance of cream of Levitra Prices Costco tartar or tartaric acid. This is poured into the casks and stirred. The tan- nic acid of the hops unites with the gelatin and carries down the floating particles of yeast and other causes of tur- bidity. Sometimes the beer is first treated with tannin, and then gelatin in larger quantity, so as to clear it very quickly. The addition of the cream of tartar or tartaric acid ren- ders the beer strongly acid. This makes it necessary to add bicarbonate of sodium, to neutralize the acid and remove the sharp taste. This is done at the time the beer is put into the keg, just before sending it out. Another object of this bicarbonate of sodium is to give the beer a bead. An- other cause of acidity is in certain acid fermentations which frequently take place after the alcoholic fermentation. This may be due to lack of cleanliness in the brewery or to the ■want of a sufficiently low temperature in the storing cellars to keep the beer. The addition of gelatin makes the fluid especially subject to these foreign fermentations, such as the lactic, butyric, and mucic fermentations, which occa- sionally give the brewers much trouble and require the addition of certain antiseptics. The anti -fermentatives found in breweries visited were principally salicylic acid 'and calcium bisulphite. These foreign fermentations, Levitra Prices Costco when well established in a brewery, require the services of the "beer doctor" to eradicate them. He is a recognized ne- cessity, who, by the use of various antiseptics and flavoring substances, "doctors" up a spoiled brew and makes Levitra Prices Costco salable what would otherwise have to be thrown away. These antiseptics are not added in sufficient quantity to kill the ferment, but are only inhibitory. These ferments, when taken into the stomach, have been shown Levitra Prices Costco by Petten- kofer to produce gastric and intestinal disturbances, some- times of a very severe character. The action is akin to that of slightly soured milk. This same fault is occasionally met with in beer containing floating yeast, which the im- perfect clearing process has not removed. All foreign authorities agree that beers which have devel- oped these foreign fermentations, as well as those contain- ing floating yeast, are injurious to the health of those con- suming them, and consequently Levitra Prices Costco in some parts of Germany