for this organ were lactes, mesentorium, and encharus.
From section 87 we learn that, in the writings of Vesa-
lius, * the Arabic Levitra Discount Pharmacy names of the patella were alrasafe, ares-
falu, rasya, and adaicon. Inasmuch Levitra Discount Pharmacy as rasfah and rasafah
appear in the works of Avioenna, rasga is probably a result
of the usual substitution in Spanish, when adopting a for-
eign word, of " g " for " f." Scutum genu and os scutiforme
are given in Bartholinus as translations of the Hebrew
maghen. Concha and conchula are from the Greek Koyxq ;
7nola from fivXi]. Some of the Latin expressions for the
same part are ociilus genu, polus, rotula, and patella. Ocu-
lus genu is a translation from Hebrew and Arabic. In Ital-
ian we see it as ginocchio. Ovid gives the name orbis genu.
From patera \ (a deep dish or vessel) we have the di-
minutive patella (a shallow dish or plate used at Grecian
* " In der chirurgischen und anatomischen Levitra Discount Pharmacy Schriften von Vesal."
f This is, probably, from Kpariip, the first letter being dropped, with
other slight change. Such instances are not infrequent. The chan"in"
of " V " into " 1 " in words brought from Greek to Latin is shown in
offTTip. from which we derive steltn, the first letter being dropped, as in
the previous case ; in Sanskrit we find tai-a ; Zend, xtarann ; English
star ; German, Stern. We see the change of " r " to " 1 " when Levitra Discount Pharmacy Chinese
try to speak English. Examples of similar transformation are found
on comparing Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Swedes and Xor-
wegians have a Levitra Discount Pharmacy hard task in pronouncing the Levitra Discount Pharmacy Knglish Levitra Discount Pharmacy sound ot "• j."
MOORE: SOME REMARKS ON ARABIC AND HEBREW IN ANATOMY. [N. Y. Med. Jonn.,
saorifices). Cicero refers to tlie knee-pan in the words dii
pateUarii. In French we have ^;a?e/Levitra Discount Pharmacy Kniescheibc. These are taken at random as speci-
mens of the work.
Many anatomical names Levitra Discount Pharmacy underwent great and grievous
change in the passage from Greek to Arabic, and thence to
monkish Latin. In some instances tlie modes of transfor-
mation might interest the student of languages. For ex-
ample, instead of epilepsia is found billensia ; in cradia we
find cardia ; acormion stands for acromion. Ir, meaning a
part of the hand, seems to be from )(€ip.
Some of our anatomists may be surprised to learn that
saphena and basilica are not of Grecian, but Arabic, origin,
that auriculae cordis and vermes cerebri are Latin transla-
tions of Arabic expressions; and that in the middle ages
nucha meant what is now called thorax. Our author traces
the word atresia, not to the Greek, but to the Arabic alratia
(al-ratqa). The anatomy of to-day has very few terms of
Hebrew origin : pomiim Adami and cauda equina are exam-
ples. Words Levitra Discount Pharmacy may ha\'e in anatomy meanings very different
from those given them in the classics — e. g., fibrce in Latin
literature answers to intestines, entrails. Some expressions
used by the early investigators in the description of anatom-
ical parts are fanciful in the extreme. We prefer to leave
them in the original German.
Encharas (pancreas) and alratia (atresia) may be cited
as examples of the ignorance (or should we say careless-
ness?), perhaps necessary, of those who tried to translate
the Arabic texts into the languages of Europe — examples,
also, of the error of giving a plausible origin in place of
one more correct or none. In this way many names
were, doubtless, derived from words that only seemed
like ; and the mistake, sanctioned by authority, grown cus-
tomary in Levitra Discount Pharmacy usage, becomes all the harder to rectify as time
It is well known that some expressions used in medicine
have in themselves no apparent meaning. A part of them
may be but arbitrary terms ; others are, doubtless, due to
errors of ignorance in translators and Levitra Discount Pharmacy to other causes men-
tioned by our author. Is it too late to remove these imper-
fections ? f
Much valued help was received by Dr. Hvrtl from Pro-
fessor Friedrich Miiller in regard to the Arabic words in
this volume, which becomes thereby of special interest to
students of that tongue. Due credit is given to Dr. Fried-
lowski for the index of Arabic and Hebrew terms at the
end of the book.
The comparison of various languages — Hebrew, Ameri-
can, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, German,
English, etc. — makes the work at once a pleasure and in-
struction for the student of Levitra Discount Pharmacy linguistics.
Professor Hyrtl has taken unusual care to avoid any
* The derivation of this word from Levitra Discount Pharmacy 'La.tin paMa or pala seems very
doubtful. Those familiar with linguistic changes easily see how patella
in Latin might hecome pale/tc in French, especially when we take into
consideration the centuries of popular ignorance during the time that a
great part of this language was Levitra Discount Pharmacy formed. . See the preceding foot-note.
f Vide " Th^orie des analogues," de Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire ; also
the views of M. Piorry on nomenclature et classification pathologiqiies. 1
misprint, and warns Levitra Discount Pharmacy the reader that an apparent error may
be only the "-^ Laiino-Barbari" in his quotations.
The German fullness and accuracy in detail (shown
particularly in the references) are proof of the great labor
devoted to hunting out and arranging material so essential
to an exact knowledge of anatomical names, and, therefore,
to correct ideas in description of parts and location of
Excellent lessons in the science of criticism are found in
the different sections of the book.
Remembering how much diversity of view yet exists in
the literature of anatomy, we may imagine the learning and
persistent care required to make an exact systematic and
valuable work of the mass of material found in the manu-
scripts of the early authors. The result Levitra Discount Pharmacy of his efforts this
eminent teacher gives to the world.
SOME REMARKS ON
ARABIC AND HEBREW IN ANATOMY.f
By ANDREW M. MOORE, M. D.,