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1. The public health is made up of the health of indi- viduals, some of whom are in good physical condition, while others are the victims of various disorders. The invalids of the community are our especial care, and must be as carefully protected from injury as the most robust. 2. Any adulteration which can work harm to any class of persons in a community should not be permitted to be sold as food in that community. That is, by way of ex- planation, provided that the food so adulterated is, when in the natural unadulterated state, a fit food for such class of persons. Thus corned-beef and cabbage might work harm to young children, and yet be a fit food for healthy adults, who are most likely to eat of it. If the same article is preserved with boric acid, it may work harm to a certain class of persons who think themselves healthy. Such an adulteration should be prohibited. 3. Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix A substance may be a useful medicament in certain pathological conditions for a limited time, and yet, when taken for a long Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix time, may prove very injurious. The very fact that a substance has a decided physiological ac- tion renders it unfit for a food to be used for an indefinite period. The continued stimulation of any organ or func- tion sooner or later leads to diseased action. A food must, therefore, have no specific physiological action upon any one organ, or set of organs, especially if it is a staple article, often eaten. 4. A substance which is foreign to the human body, and can not be burned up or transformed into a substance which is natural to the body, is to be regarded with suspicion until it is shown that it is without any appreciable action upou the digestive or excretory organs. The kidneys and liver are the chief excretory organs. These organs will not long endure overwork without becoming diseased. It is a recoo-- nized fact that congestion and inflammation of both these organs are due in many cases to overwork and irritation from foreign bodies ; in short, from unnatural stimulation. Dickinson, speaking Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix of the causes of nephritis, says : The blood is charged with material excessive in Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix quantity, or unnatural in quality, which these glands take upon them- selves to remove. Their own proper elements of secretion are poured upon them in sudden and excessive amount, or matter is thrown upon them which is foreign to their usual habit. As a consequene* of overwork, or of work to which they are not adapted, they take on a turbulent and abnormal activity. They become congested, the tubes get choked up with epithelial growths, and the disease is established. Among the causes of nephritis we must include certain substances taken into the body, which act as renal irritants — such as turpentine, alcohol, mercury, lead, arsenic, phos- phorus, boric acid, potassium chlorate, cantharides, carbolic acid, and some other aromatic bodies which are not oxidized in the body. Among these substances the one especially deserving of mention is alcohol, not because it is the most irritant, Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix but because, from its very wide-spread use, it is more frequently Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix applied than any other. I think it is well understood that alcoholic beverages cause certain well- marked degenerations when taken in considerable quantities I for a long time. BARTLEY: MODERN ADULTERATIONS IN FOODS. [N. ■?. Mbi>. Jock. The most frequent changes are fatty infiltration of the liver, gastric catarrh, or chronic gastritis with raammillation of the stomach and occasionally fibroid thickening of the walls, cirrhosis of the liver, and induration of the kiiJneys. The effects seem to vary somewhat with the character of the beverage used. For example, in Vienna, among beer drinkers, it is said that fatty changes are more frequent than in northern European countries, where spirits arc more commonly used. There is a prevailing opinion, based upon good, Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix though not conclusive, evidence, that the Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix modern artificial beverages are more disastrous than the natural products of a generation ago. It is admitted by beer drinkers that one can not endure the American beers so well as the best imported brands. The difierence in the effects of pure apple whisky and those of the modern Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix arti- cle known as whisky is not in the alcohol they contain. Alcohol has the same effect wherever found ; but it is the adventitious substances that make one pleasant and the other disagreeable, that make the one a simple stimulant and the other a poisonous potion. So much sensationalism and uncurbed imagination has been let loose upon this sub- ject that we are sometimes at a loss to sift out the few grains of wheat from this chaff. It can be stated with safety that artificially prepared alcoholic beverages are very common among both the native and imported brands. In some cases nothing can be said against these artificial drinks on sanitary grounds, for they are made from alcohol very carefully deprived of its fusel-oil, and from even the peculiar flavor which would reveal its origin. This is a necessity, as otherwise connoisseurs would be able to detect the fraud. Alcohol is sometimes added to weak wines to fortify them. A recent reliable authority upon the subject enumerates eighteen different Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix coloring agents and twenty- five flavoring agents, besides five mineral substances used by wine manufacturers to prepare wines for the market. This book is written for the trade and not for the public, so that we are justified in taking the directions as tolerably reliable. The same authority says : " Pure French brandy is in- deed an article unattainable by the small consumer." * He Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix says : " An excess of burnt sugar is introduced into the spirit, followed by sundry portions of cayenne pepper, grains of paradise, horse-radish, acetic ether, etc." f It would be impossible to follow out the Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix details of this sub- ject. It has been determined by Dujardin-Beaumetz that the toxic action of alcohol is greatly increased by impuri- ties ; so that an -inferior brandy has a lethal action nearly one half greater than the best ethylic alcohol. The experi- ments of Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix B. "W. Levitra 20mg Bayer Prix Richardson, Eulenburg, Rabuteau, and Furst agree in assigning very poisonous qualities to fusel- oil as an adulterant of alcoholic drinks. As to the action of the various ethers of amylic alcohol (fusel-oil) so gener- ally used in the manufacture of artificial drinks, we have but few data ; but it is stated on good authority that their action is injurious. We should not think of recommending amyl nitrite (one of these ethers) as a drink, even in very minute quantities. "The Brewer and Distiller," p. 160.