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climatic change, but are the results of a change in the negro himself, springing in the main from a complete revolution in his mode of life and habits. While the negro had a master he had no thought of the morrow ; not a single care burdened his mind ; there was nothing to disturb his equi- librium, and he was always the same fat, sleek, and contented individual, flourishing in the tropical Southern sun like a healthy plant indigenous to the soil. As a rule, he was well treated; had warm clothing; his diet, though plain, Levitra 20 Mg Cost was wholesome and sufficient ; he was comfortably, cleanly quartered, and not overcrowded ; tlie foreman saw that his hours were regular, compelling him to retire early and rise by daylight. As a slave, his passions and animal instincts were kept in abeyance by the will of his master, and, through fear of punishment, he was compelled to observe the most rigid laws conducive to health and hygiene. Contrast his condition to-day. Many suffer from actual want of daily necessities, consuming but little meat and fatty Levitra 20 Mg Cost substances, other provisions likewise being often insuf- ficient, their clothing thin, and their houses as a rule too small and filthy for comfort or health, one room in many instances sufficing for whole families, including children and dogs. In the light of reason, then, what more could we expect than to find this unsanitary condition productive of great evils to health and morals ? lu addition to this bad sanitary condition and other causes mentioned, the excitement incident to and depend- ent upon his sudden emancipation bad much to do with bringing upon him these troubles that have marked his gradual Levitra 20 Mg Cost deterioration. This sudden striking the shackles from Levitra 20 Mg Cost his hands gave him not only freedom from the oore and surveillance of his master, but it gave him liberty which he converted into license to violate and outrage all the natu- ral and moral laws provided for his well-being. It seems but natural, however, that the negro, thus suddenly liber- ated, should want to taste of the sweets of freedom in every sense, and, like a glutton at a feast, we find him suffering from the reactionary effects of the too sudden Levitra 20 Mg Cost revulsion. From a quiet, peaceable being, he soon became a relig- ious fanatic or a turbulent politician, often both combined, and, whirling in this vortex, night was turned into day with him ; his nightly meetings continued until after midnight, and at these meetings all restraint was laid aside and his nervous organism strained to its utmost tension. His for- mer love for his master was changed into hate for the whites, and his credulous mind was kept at its highest pitch by politicians inculcating the idea that white people wanted to put the blacks back into slavery, the poor dupes even being deluded with the idea of political preferment and social equality with the whites. Their religion, lamentably lacking in the essentials of morality and rationality, is characterized as being very emo- tional, consisting of wild and hysterical shouting, singing, and dancing, and it is not an uncommon thing, when their minds are overwrought by this kind Levitra 20 Mg Cost of excitement, for them, during these meetings, to go into the trance state. Voudouism also plays an important part in their religious worship, and they are victims of superstition to the utmost degree. In a word, it is imjiossible to estimate the evils that in- temperance has brought upon the negro, and it is an incon- trovertible fact, sustained by the irresistible proofs of daily observations, that it has been one of his greatest curses. All observers agree that intemperance is intimately con- Levitra 20 Mg Cost nected with and is one of the main exciting causes of insani- ty in all races, and this is especially true of the negro, and, as its evil effects are handed down to succeeding genera- tions, we can but expect his progenitors to be heirs to alco- holism, idiocy, or hereditary insanity. The negro is naturally intemperate, and, unrestrained, indulges every appetite too freely, whether for food, drink, tobacco, or sensual pleasures, and sometimes to such an ex- tent as to appear more of a brute than human. The grati- fication of these appetites has enervated him, and, from leading Levitra 20 Mg Cost an active and useful life, many have become indo- lent, lazy, trifling vagabonds, a curse to the country and a burden to the State. It is remarkable, though, that while negroes are given to all forms of intemperance, but few use opium. I have never seen an opium-eater among them; tliev are afraid of narcotics and cold pisen in general. As to the influence of civilization as a cause of insanity, Dr. Bucknill Levitra 20 Mg Cost and Dr. Tuke say that insanity attains its maximum among civilized nations and remains at its mini- mum among savage nations, the unfavorable causes being the increased susceptibility of the emotions, Levitra 20 Mg Cost the abuse of stimulants, overwork of the brain, especially in the young, and that condition of the lower classes which is a constant attendant upon civilization — the higher emotions or moral sentiments, the lower propensities and the intellectual facul- July 17, 1S86.] BUCHANAN: INSANITY IN THE COLORED RACE. 69 ties beinof subjected to an excitement unknown to savage tribes. Are not these remarks apropos when applied to the negro race ? Then the mind of the negro is not sus- ceptible of as high development as the white, owing, as some pathologists maintain, to the fact that the sutures close much earlier iu the negro than in other races. In child- hood negroes are bright, intelligent, and vivacious, and, as a rule, learn as fast as whites of the same age, but on the approach of adult life a gradual change is manifested. The Levitra 20 Mg Cost intellect seems to become clouded; they grow unambi- tious and indolent, and, losing interest in their books, their advancement grows slower and finally ceases altogether. In the white race the volume of the brain grows with the ex- pansion of the brain-pan, but in the case of the negro, on Levitra 20 Mg Cost the contrary, the Levitra 20 Mg Cost growth of the brain is arrested by the premature closing of the cranial sutures and the lateral pressure of the frontal bones. This is an hereditary physical condition, and any sudden attempt to Levitra 20 Mg Cost transform the negro mind by a system of enlight- enment and culture so much at variance with his nature must not only prove futile, but is a source of actual harm to him, viewed from any standpoint. If this condition is true, then the structural and intellectual development