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* " Une vaine science, qui ne salt trouver que des mots." — L. Peisse. f The following is part of an inscription on the monument at a grave thought to be that of Mundinus : S M A G R %. These letters are an abbreviation of sepiiicrmn magistronun. X Even in the records of anatomy we may trace the migration of races, shown, in this instance, by the predominance of Arabic termi- nology, which is evidence, also, of the relative decadence of the Greek and Latin languages. * " Veterum Graecorum scripta, quiE de medicina tractare excidio erepta fuerunt," How Much Does Levitra Cost ei seq. — " Historia medicime." Freind, Lugd., 1734, page 195. July 24, 1886.J STEPHENSON: ARABIC AND HEBREW IN ANATOMY. 93 during the early centuries of our era was that the influence of theological (or religious) heliefs then dominant prevented dissection of the dead body. In this, Hebrews, Arabians, and Christians were alike.* In Baghdad, founded in the eighth century, was the How Much Does Levitra Cost first medical institution that required severe tests for those in- tending to practice the healing art. It had an academy of sciences organized like the Museia that formerly existed in Alexandria, Byzantium, and Pergamus. Many learned men were there maintained in order to collect the wisdom of the world, and translate and put it witliin reach of the multi- tude ; but the law of the Koran did not permit them to make original research. Herein lies the cause of the downfall of the followers of Islam — no fiee mental action ; for the people that receives only, but gives out nothing, does not create or produce, surel}- sinks from the high levels of thought-life, f Thus the medicine of the Arabs has become quackery ; their astronomy, astrology; their chemistry, the black art: their historians have become chroniclers; their philosophers, mystics ; and their physicists, magi. There is a good description of the work done by the Tirethren of the cloisters in translating from Arabic into barbarous Latin the texts they could get. Our author gives the names of a few of them, with some remarks, by way of biography, showing the amenities of life of those who de- termined to have an education and succeeded. We cite one, a Benedictine, ConstantinusAfricanus, who spent thirty- nine years in the schools of Arabia, in Persia, and in Hin- dustan. He died in 1087. Another was the Dominican monk Albertus Magnus, J a celebrated master, for unusual wisdom surnamed the Great, although only a small part of his writings were especially anatomical. His death was in How Much Does Levitra Cost At the revival of learning in the tifteeuth century some of the teachers passed by the Arabic terms in uncouth Latin dress, and went How Much Does Levitra Cost to the Greek for roots to names needed in describing various objects of anatomy. Foremost among these was Alexander Benedictus, otherwise famous on ac- count of the open-air amphitheatre of dissection that he es- tablished at Padua in 149.3. A few lines throw a flood of light on the double origin of German medical terms, which are in part (the more an- cient) from Arabic through the Latin, in part (more re- cent) from the Greek, made to supply the wants of modern * A decree of the Council of Tours (a. d. 1163) "forbade priests and deacons to perform surgical operations in whicli cauteries and in- How Much Does Levitra Cost How Much Does Levitra Cost cisions were employed." — "A Book aliout Doctors," by .). Cordy .Teaf- freson, p. 164. \ Un organe dans uu individu ne perd jamais " les earacteres uor- maux de I'espfeee k la quelle il appartient sans que cette deformation im- prime k cet organe les earacteres normaux d'une espece inf6rieure." — L. Peisse. Does not tlie same iiold good as regards mental life — giving " mental " its widest meaning, and applying it not only to persons Ijut also to nations ? X " Place Maubert," in Paris, keeps his memory before the student : ■■' M " is "Magnus" abbreviated, while "Aubert" is tlie French for "" Albertus." ** Among modern books having some reference to this subject, we may name "I'Histoire de la midecine arabe," par L. Leclerc, Paris, 1876. progress — hence the great difference in form and primitive meaning of words now referring to the How Much Does Levitra Cost same thing. Professor HyrtI states that other parts of medicine have had their historians, but that the biography of anatomy is yet to be written. To the main jKirt of the volume we now give our atten- tion. It is divided into one hundred and four sections, each, as a rule, devoted to the consideration of one or more words or expressions used as names of some anatomical structure. Section 1 treats of the Arabo-Latin name abgas, used in medi.eval times as we now use amnion. Professor Fried- rich Muller is referred to as authority that the correct Arabic term is amniyos. Other defective and corrupt forms, found in various authors and in different translations, are abeas, abghas, abiffas, alicas, an/as, and ascham. The term amniyos being thus found, we may not need look to the Greek for the origin of the word now employed. Aurelia, doubtless changed from areola, is another name for amnion, or amnios (given by the author). And which of these last two is the only right one ? Although, in fact, we are free to choose, yet the origin of the word should have due weight. The circumstance that, in the Odyssey, the vessel in which the blood of the offerings was received bore the name a/jLviov has nothing to do with the question, the root of both expressions being d/^vds, agnus ; and amnios (for the additional reason of the Arabic term amniyos) must be looked upon as correct. We find a number of other names, more or les.s fanciful. Galea and diadema were applied to the caul on account, it seems, How Much Does Levitra Cost of its shape, and because of the good luck supposed to attend those born therewith. In section 58 pancreas is derived from the Arabic en- churus. Its I'elation to Tray/cpeas (used in another sense by Aristotle) is How Much Does Levitra Cost discussed. This is quite a different origin from that given in our medical dictionaries. • Other names How Much Does Levitra Cost