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that it deserves. I refer to the use of preservatives. Most of the new preservatives in the market depend for their pre- servative action upon boric or salicylic Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk acid, either free or in combination. Both of these acids are capable of de- cidedly irritative action upon the kidneys, and probably also upon the liver. Boric acid has caused death by absorption from the lower bowel when used as an injection ; and also by ab- sorption fi'om a wound in the thigh, where it was used Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk as a surgical dressing. In both cases the post-mortem appear- ances were intense congestion of the liver and kidneys. Suppression of urine preceded death. Siilicylic acid is also sometimes known to cause considerable irritation of the kidneys during its elimination. I have known of at least two cases where this remedy produced an attack of acute nephritis when administered for rheumatism. In one case, where it was self-administered for three Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk years for chronic rheumatism, the patient died of chronic Bright's disease, probably as a result of the remedy, though not positively. The fatal malady was contracted during the period when the salicylate of sodium was used. So prominent is this effect of the salicylates, that it is a remedy to be used with great caution in post-scarlatinal and post-diphtheritic rheumatism. Salicylic acid, like a number of the other substances of the aromatic series of coal-tar compounds, is not wholly burned up in the body, but is ex- creted as salicylate of sodium in the urine, and thus exerts its irritant action upon the kidneys. The long-continued administration, therefore, of either the borates or the sali- cylates is to be avoided. The much -vaunted "rex magnus," " preservaline," " boro-glyceride," "fruitaline," etc., all contain one or other of these agents. They are recommended and used to pre- serve meats, milk, fruits, and various articles of food. About two years ago a certain brand of milk in this city, which had the indorsement of a number of the leading phy- sicians and divines, was found to contain about ninetv grains to the quart of the mixture known as rex magnus — composed of boric acid, borax, and common salt. Salicylic acid is now frequently used to preserve canned fruits. It is not the effect of a small medicinal dose that we here object to, but we do object to being fed upon these substances ourselves, or to have those members of the community fed upon them whose kidneys and livers are already in a state of chronic irritation, Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk congestion, or inflammation, with lessened secret- ing power. • So much has been said and printed upon the subject of milk as a carrier of disease that I hesitate to add to it here. I will, however, endeavor to give a resume of the pres- ent knowledge upon certain points not so often discussed. That milk can take up and convey specific morbific matter can not be questioned. In 1883 Mr. Ernest Hart, in a paper read before an English social science congress, gave particulars of eighty-two epidemics, due to infected milk) occurring between 1873 and 1883. Of these, fifty-three were of typhoid fever, seventeen of scarlatina, and twelve of diphtheria. The whole number of cases of disease traced to this source were : Typhoid fever 3,500, with -tOO deaths ; Scarlatina 800, " 120 " Diphtheria 700, " GO " Total 5,000, with 580 deatlis. These were only such epidemics r.s had been positively traced to the milk. Will anr one pretend to say how many epidemics, or liow many individual cases, were never inves tigated or traced to their proper source ? Epidemics of measles, small-pox, and diarrheal diseases July 17, 1886.] BARTLEY: MODERN ADULTERATIONS IN FOODS. 61 Lave been caused by the milk supply. All disorders due to filth and Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk polluted waters may bs, and frequently are, driven from door to door and sold for seven cents a quart. Some years ago a number of cases of sickness resem- bling typhoid fever were traced to Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk a stable in the upper part of New York Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk city. An inspection of the cows showed one of them to be sick. Her milk, on examination, was found to contain pus. The suppression of this milk re- sulted in the complete cessation of the sickness. An in- flamed and suppurating udder may give a milk which will sicken those who partake of it. The danger of milk being specifically infected with contagious epizootic diseases is not so great as Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk might be expected, from the fact that in most of these diseases, especially in the acute stage, the se- cretion of milk is greatly lessened or suppressed. The only two diseases of this class in which the milk usually con- tinues to be secreted are plenro-pneumonia and footrand- mouth disease. The first of these has not been communi- cated to the human subject, but a disease similar to the latter has been communicated by the milk. The question whether the milk from tuberculous cows Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk can communicate this disease has been much debated within Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk recent years. In ninety-one experiments with feeding the milk of tu- berculous cows to different kinds of domesticated animals, 30"7 per cent, of the animals contracted the disease. It is stated by Stang and others that they have seen the acci- dental production of the disease Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk in children from drinking warm milk from tuberculous cows. Without dwelling upon the recorded experiments and reported cases, it seems to be pretty well established that tuberculosis is a communicable disease, and can be pro- duced in a large number of cases, in the lower animals at least, by the ingestion of tuberculous Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk flesh, sputa, or milk. Although there are a few reported cases of the transmission of the disease to children by the Generic Levitra Vardenafil Uk same method, this can not be regarded as positively settled, but the conviction that it can be thus transmitted is almost irresistible. I am prepared to believe that many cases are acquired through tuberculous food in families where hei'edity is out of the question. For example, in one family coming under my notice, five children died with tuberculosis, when for four generations a death had not occurred from this cause. There is no allegation, however, that the food or milk was