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oPnginal Communications. ARABIC AND HEBREW IN ANATOMY.* By F. H. STEPHENSON, M.I)., V. 9. NAVT. A RECENT French writer f refers to cases of intestinal occlusion in which operation might have saved life. He states, also, that Praxagoras proposed to open the intestine, uud, " after having emptied it, to tie it up." Altliough modern surgery does wonders, the records show that gastrotomy is not a new operation.J Excellences of sculpture are not the only treasures that become hid from sight and use in the passage of time.* While owing much to the progress of the day, doctors may yet learn many things from their ancient confreres. Shall we not honor, by study || of their works, those who show us the wisdom of physicians of former ages ? ^ This paper may serve to draw more especial attention to the labors of modern scholars through which old-time books of medicine are put within our reach ; and in particular to those of Dr. Joseph Hyrtl, emeritus professor of anatomy in the University at Vienna. Among a mimber of medico-scientitic productions by Professor Hyrtl, the most recent that we have been able to get is the erudite work entitled " Das Arabische und Ple- braische in der Anatomic." This volume is dedicated to his friend. Dr. Friedrich Miiller, the learned student and teacher of languages. It contains three hundred and lifty-eight pages, forty-seven of which are filled by the Introduction. On page 42, et seq., is a list of Arabic names of diseases, with their mod- ern Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg equivalents. By an appendix of fifty pages, additions sire made to the various sections of the Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg book. In numerous foot-notes authorities are given, with other historic and lin- guistic data, explanations, etc. On the last eleven pages we find a list of Arabic and Hebrew terms used in the text, with translations in German. * Read before the XJ. S. Naval Medical Society. f Noel Gueneau de Mussy, " Clinique medicale." I " Quand, par I'observiition direete du rfegne animal, 6tudie dans son organisation inteiieure la plus delicate, Cuvier cut fini son travail, il trouva qu'il etait arrive i pen pres aux memes divisions qu'Aristote avail ^tablies, il y a plus de deux miUe ans." — " La medecine et les niedecins," par Louis Peisse. Paris, 1857. * " It is said that the priests initiated to the secret science of the ancient temples knew how to call lightning from heaven (ivoquer Jupi- ter EVu-'mii) thousands of years before the time of Frankhu." — Louis Peisse. II A more glorious monument than lifeless stone. ■^ " La medecine est la plus vaste et la plus complexe des sciences, la plus noble et la plus difficile de tous les arts. A ce double titre, elle exige du savant et de I'artiste le d^veloppement Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg des plus hautes facult^s' de I'intelligence, et un degr6 superieur de culture gen^rale, qui est I'oeuvre des belles-leitres. Les connaissances techniques, seules, ne constituent <[ue le praticien; c'est ce surplus d'ornement de I'espritqui fait le m6de- ciu accompli. L'idee de la superiority de la personne augmente le prix de ses services, et I'art sera d'autant mieux r^compens^ que les raedecins seront places plus haul, comme hommes, dans I'opinion. . . . La grande oeuvre de la reunion de la famille humaine, que la religion et la po6sie Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg commeneerent, s'achevera par la science ... la medecine." — L. Peisse. Let us examine the Introduction in detail. The first sentence — " there was a time when much was written about anatomy, although anatomy was not " — makes one think of the words, words, words, in which facts of medicine are often drowned.* "' This time lasted for more than a thou- sand years. From Galen's Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg death (a. d. 201) Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg till Mundinus de Suziis f (died a. d. 1.326) the rich field of anatomy lay idle." The author gives short sketches of works on anatomy extant in the first centuries of the present era, remarking that they were brief indeed, but long enough for that time, .since they contained all then known on the subject. Men who were not doctors also wTote on this topic, as one Ne- mesius, a bishop in Edessa, Syria. He " was a philosopher and busied himself with anatomy, in the firm persuasion that all philosophy must arise out of the thorough knowledge of man himself." " The noble language of Homer, that, Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg in the decline of Grecian culture, lost none of its majestic beauty, gives to these writings a classic elegance." The Latin authors appeared in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, being reproductions of current Arabian manu- scripts ; but both the matter of their translations and their style were incredibly bad. J With Vesalius a new order of things began. The Grecian medical texts were not destroyed in the burning of the Alexandrian library, nor the books on natural science, but only those philosophic and religious scrolls that wore contrary to the laws of the Prophet.* Inasmuch as the Arabs thus became possessors of all the science preserved b}' the Greeks in parchments, and probably more not so kept, we may expect to find in their writings a completer anatomy than has been, by other means, handed down to us from ancient Hellas. What the Arabians translated from Aristotle and (lalen was deformed, increased, or Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg lessened, as they might fancy ; and, from likeness of mind, the scholastic reasoners of the middle ages found more congenial study in the works of Avicenna and others of his intellectual type than in those of Greece. The aphorisms of Hippocrates, the Ars Parva of Galen, with the Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg Materia Medica of Dioscorides, were the only works used as text-books by the medical faculties of the Greeks ; while at Vienna, according to the laws for 1389, in order to become baccalaureus, the student was required to hear the first and fourth Canon Avicenna;, the ninth book of Rhases ad Ahnansorem and the Ars Commentafa of Joannitius. The reason of so little gain in the Costo Levitra Da 20 Mg knowledge of anatomy