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fixtures. As the very important question of Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg an increased water supply for the city is now under advisement, it seems not inopportune to suggest in this place that the true source to draw upon for our future as for our immediate needs is being singularly overlooked. While the Croton water-shed, so called, toward which all eyes seem at present to be turned, may, by various means of husbandry, afford a sufficient sup- ply for our immediate wants, yet the true source to draw upon for an unlimited supply for present uses, as for the greater needs of a future increased population, is, without doubt, the Hudson River. The Hudson above Poughkeep- sie, and upward for miles at a stretch, and between the inlets of Esopus and Saugerties (see the map of the United States Preliminary Survey of the river), is fed by and receives large accessions to its volume from innumerable springs that Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg rise in its bottom. At some convenient point in this region of springs the supply should be taken. It could readily be pumped to the required elevation, then conducted by pipes to the upper end of the present aqueducts, and thence de^ livered throughout the city, through channels already built or being constructed, with comparatively little additional cost. The greater purity of the Hudson River water taken above Poughkeepsie over that collected on the Croton water-shed, drained through innumerable reservoirs of filth, can not be questioned ; and, as to the greater reliability of an assured supply from the Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg two sources, the former merits pre-eminent recognition over the latter. Abundant pure water, with the necessary elevation and pressure to accommodate all, being provided, and the re- quired number of conveniently placed fixtures scattered throughout our houses being put in, the question then arises : How shall we treat sew'cr gases that tend to escape through the latter ? Shall we, for instance, allow them to escape and then trust to expelling them again into the open air? Shall we trust to their antidotal treatment by germi- cides in the drain- and soil-pipes before they escape, or shall we simply exclude them by reliable trapping ? (To be concluded.) INSANITY m THE COLOEED EACE. Bt J. M. BUCHANAN, M. D., Meridian, Miss., A9SIBTANT PHTSICIAJT TO THE EAST MISSISSIPPI DfPANX ASYLUM. In this nineteenth century, the age in which we proudly boast that civilization has reached its Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg acme and men have almost perfected themselves in the sciences as vpell as in the modern improvements and conveniences of life, it is an unpleasant thought to consider that this higher develop- ment has brought in its train an alarming increase- of in- sanity. It is true that more thorough investigation and the more modern methods of caring for our insane have brought under observation many cases that were formerly kept con- cealed at the homes of the afflicted, and, in addition to this, our population is increasing rapidly, and it is logical that insanity should increase in a corresponding ratio. This fact partially accounts for the increase, but during the last twenty years the increase of insanity in this country is dis- proportionate to the increase in population. The increase of insanity over that of population is about twelve per cent. Writers on this subject give several causes for this in- crease of insanity in the white race, chief among which are the large influx of foreigners, hereditary taint, intemperance, the education of the times, the great excitement and com- petition in the commercial world, and the change from a vigorous, well-balanced organization to an undue preponder- ance of the nervous temperament, which is gradually taking place in succeeding generations. Some of these hold good with the negro, but the two main causes, hereditary predis- position and immigration, must be excluded ; and, as the increase in the case of the negro is equally as great, we must look for some other cause, especially since this Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg rapid increase dates from his emancipation. From information obtained by travelers in Africa, we learn that insanity among the natives is almost unknown, and we can safely say that there it is at its minimum. On being transplanted to this country, however, the negroes came under the influence of our civilization, and after a time we saw insanity cropping out among them, but, owing to their condition of servitude, they remained to a great de- gree on the same mental plane as their savage ancestors, and mental troubles Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg were not much aggravated. On their emancipation every means was used to elevate them, and the influence of civilization was brought to bear on them in every possible way, and, as soon as this has had time to show its effects, we find them suffering from insanity in a greater degree than the whites. Statistics will bear me out in this BUCHANAN : INSANITY IN THE COLORED RACE. [M. Y. Med. Jotib., statement, and any slave-owner will tell you tliat insanity among the negroes was a rare occurrence before the war. The federal census reports a total of 638 insane negroes in 1850, and in 1860 the number had increased to only 766, or say one insane negro for every 5,799. Returns for 1870 show one to 2,695, and in 1880 we find one for every 1,096. If the same Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg ratio is kept "up, by 1890 we may ex- pect to find the whites and Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg colored with about the same ratio, which is one for each 500. It seems that with his freedom the negro fell heir to several diseases that previously had been confined to the white race. Pneumonia has always been a frequent and fatal disease among negroes, but before their emancipation a full-blooded negro was never known to Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg die of consump- tion. To-day the mortuary reports of any Southern city will show that phthisis is the greatest foe to the colored race. The negro is also susceptible Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg to other diseases and epidemics that he formerly resisted and passed through with impunity. And in this connection let us speculate a little. Why is it that to-day thousands are suffering from ■ diseases from which nature seems to have granted them im- munity as a race before their emancipation ? These diseases are just what they were thirty years ago ; there has been no change in our climate or soil, and our white population are affected just Cost Of Levitra 20 Mg as they always were. Unquestionably, to my mind, these diseases are not traceable to any infecting agent, nor are they due to any